Bălan is a town in Harghita County, Romania. The northernmost municipality in the unofficial region of Felcsík (Ciucul de Sus), it is also one of Romania's most important centres for copper mining. Its Romanian name means "blond," while the Hungarian and German names reflect the importance of its mines.
Bălan was the site of iron mining during the 17th century, but by 1702 the iron stores had been depleted. The copper deposits were discovered in 1785 by János Opra; production began in 1803, and by 1853 six mines were in operation. From that period, the village gradually began to develop into a town. Until 1967, Bălan remained part of the commune of Sândominic, finally gaining official town status in 1968. In 2006 all mining-related activities were stopped by the Romanian government and nowadays the city is counting on ecotourism and small businesses as main economical activities.
Bălan's main architectural site is the Roman Catholic Church, consecrated in 1869. Despite the environmental blight of the mining, the surrounding area is uncommonly beautiful, taking in the nearby mountains of Hăşmaşul Mare and Tarcău, the former a popular hiking destination. The river Olt, one of Romania's most significant, originates in the mountains near the town.