Calafat is a city in Dolj County, Romania, on the river Danube, opposite the Bulgarian city of Vidin, to which it is linked by ferryboat. The construction of the Calafat-Vidin Bridge is planned between the two cities.
It was founded in the 14th century by Genoese colonists, who employed large numbers of workmen (Calfats) in repairing ships. This industry gave the town its name.
In January 1854, during the Crimean War, when Russian forces were headed up the Danube, Ahmed Pasha, commanding the Turkish forces at Calafat, made a surprise attack on the Russian garrison at nearby Citate, which was under the command of Colonel Alexander Baumgarten. This diverted the initial Russian attack and allowed Ahmed Pasha to consolidate his forces in Calafat. On 28 January the Russians under the command of General Iosif Romanovich Anrep reached Calafat and began the siege which lasted until May. Riddled by disease and unable to take the town, Anrep withdrew.