The earliest record of a community in this location is a place identified as Chumbul in a papal tax record in 1333. This place came under Turkish (Ottoman) administration in 1552. As a result of the Treaty of Passarowitz this place came under Austrian rule in 1718. The surrounding region had become seriously depopulated during the period of Turkish rule.
Jimbolia was colonized in 1766 by German-speaking settlers (Danube Swabians) who named their new community Hatzfeld. Later, this community was also identified as Zombolya.
Hatzfeld/Zombolya came under Serbian military rule on Nov. 17, 1918. As a result of the Treaty of Trianon, Hatzfeld/Zombolya came within the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes as of July 4, 1920. As the result of an adjustment in the border between Romania and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, it became part of Romania with the name Jimbolia on April 9, 1924. At the same time, the village of Modosch was transferred from Romania to the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.
The painter Stefan Jäger, known for his depiction of Danube Swabian life and history, lived in the town from 1910 until his death in 1962.
The notorious Hungarian political figure Dr. Franz Anton Basch was born here on July 1, 1901.