Olteniţa is a city in Romania in the Călăraşi County on the left bank of the Argeş River where its waters reach the Danube through a network of streams and marshes.
Oltenita stands just across the Danube from the Bulgarian city of Tutrakan (Turtucaia, in Romanian).
Excavations on Gumelniţa hill near the city revelead an impressive Neolithic settlement dating from the 4th millennium BC.
The area was the site of successive Roman and Byzantine fortifications, notably Constantiola, the seat of the first bishopric established in Dacia.
The first mention of a town bearing the name Olteniţa appears in 1515 during the reign of Neagoe Basarab.
During the Crimean War the Ottomans attempted to cross the river at this point and inflicted heavy losses on the Russians.
In the Russo-Turkish War, 1877–1878, Olteniţa was an important crossing point into Bulgaria for Romanian troops called to aid the Russian Army during the siege of the Pleven (Plevna) stronghold.
During World War I, the garrisons of Olteniţa and Turtucaia engaged in numerous artillery skirmishes. The spot was also chosen by allied German and Bulgarian troops for their invasion of Romania. The subsequent Battle of Turtucaia ended in a significant defeat for the Romanian Army.